打印本文 打印本文  关闭窗口 关闭窗口  
高考英语非谓语动词考点规律探究
作者:HW-HM  文章来源:本站原创  点击数  更新时间:2016-07-22  文章录入:admin  责任编辑:admin



高考英语非谓语动词考点规律探究

 

1. 考查非谓语动词的基本区别

从时间关系上看,不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成,同时注意不定式和现在分词的完成式也表完成(尤其是表示有明显的先后关系的完成);从主动与被动来看,不定式和现在分词表主动,过去分词表被动,同时注意不定式和现在分词的被动式也表被动(不定式的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表未来,现在分词的被动式表被动的同时还兼表进行)。如

(1) I send you 100 dollars today, the rest _______ in a year. (湖南卷)

A. follows             B. followed           C. to follow            D. being followed

答案为 C。动词不定式表示未来的动作。

(2) _______from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. (湖北卷)

A. Being separated                            B. Having separated    

C. Having been separated               D. To be separated

答案为 C。因为Australiaseparate是被动关系,且separate发生在谓语动词has之前,所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。

2. 考查非谓语动词的语态

即结合句子意思,考查非谓语动词与相应逻辑主语的关系,若为主动关系,用主动式;若为被动关系,用被动式。此时要特别注意,过去分词没有相应的被动式,因为它本身可以表示被动。如

(1) The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well_______. (湖北卷)

A. to spend          B. spent                 C. being spent     D. spending

答案为B。因moneyspend是被动关系,所以用过去分词。

(2) The prize of the game show is30000 and an all expenses _______ vacation to China. (北京卷)

A. paying              B. paid                   C. to be paid         D. being paid

答案为B。因all expensespay是被动关系,故用过去分词。注意句中的an 不是修饰 expenses,而是修饰vacation

3. 考查非谓语动词完成式的用法

非谓语动词(不定式、动名词和现在分词)的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作之前的动作。做题时要注意根据题干所提供的语境来推断这种先后关系。如

(1) The storm left, _______a lot of damage to this area. (全国卷I)

A. caused             B. to have caused                               C. to cause    D. having caused

答案为D。因The stormcause是主动关系,排除选项A;不定式作状语,前面通常不用逗号,排除BC;因暴风雨给这个地区造成损失是在结束之前,所以用完成式。

(2) More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, _______ advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. (上海卷)

A. taking               B. taken                 C. having taken   D. having been taken

答案为 A。因peopletake advantage of是主动关系,排除选项BDtake不会发生在谓语are signing up之前,不用完成式,排除C

4. 考查非谓语动词用作伴随状语

在通常情况下,表伴随情况的应用现在分词。如:

(1) He glanced over at her, _______ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together. (广东卷)

A. noting              B. noted                C. to note              D. having noted

答案为 A。因为henote是主谓关系,且note与谓语动词glanced的动作同时发生,所以用现在分词的一般式作伴随状语。

(2) Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing, as long as we were together, _______fun. (重庆卷)

A. had                   B. have                  C. to have             D. having

答案为 D。用现在分词表伴随情况。顺便说一句,有时过去分词也可表伴随(注意过去分词同时还表被动关系),但高考很少考查此用法。如:

He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。

5. 考查非谓语动词用作目的状语

在通常情况下,用作目的状语只能是不定式。如

(1) “Can the project be finished as planned?” “Sure, _______it completed in time, we’ll work two more hours a day.” (福建卷)

A. having got       B. to get                 C. getting              D. get

答案为 B。作目的状语只能用动词不定式。

(2) It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just _______a look at the sports stars. (上海卷)

A. had                   B. having              C. to have             D. have

答案为 C看看体育明星在体育馆外等三个小时的目的,作目的状语只能用动词不定式。

6. 考查非谓语动词用作结果状语

(1) Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _______a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. (山东卷)

A. have reached B. reaching           C. to reach            D. to be reaching

答案为B。伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分词作结果状语。

(2) He hurried to the station only _______ that the train had left. (广东卷)

A. to find               B. finding              C. found                D. to have found

答案为 A。因为only to do是习语,意为结果却,不料hurriedfind是先后发生的两个动作。

7. 考查非谓语动词用作宾语补足语

原则上,所有的非谓语动词形式均可用作宾语补足语,其区别是:不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成和被动。如

(1) I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise_______. (北京卷)

A. going on          B. goes on            C. went on            D. to go on

答案为A。作with的宾语的补足语要用非谓语动词,排除选项BC;与谓语动作同时发生用现在分词作宾语补足语,排除表示将来的不定式选项D

(2) You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it _______often enough (天津卷)

A. explaining       B. to explain         C. explain             D. explained

答案为D。宾语itexplain是被动关系,用过去分词作宾补,have sth done意为请人做某事

8. 考查非谓语动词的逻辑主语问题

按照英语习惯,非谓语动词的逻辑主语应与句子一致,否则就应调整句子结构。如

While watching television, _______. (全国卷III)

A. the door bell rang                          B. the doorbell rings

C. we heard the doorbell ring          D. we heard the doorbell rings

答案为C。因为watching的逻辑主语一定是we,排除选项AB;又因在hear后作宾语补足语的是省略了to的不定式,所以选项D中的rings是错误的。

9. 考查非谓语动词用作主语的问题

原则上说,动词用作主语,只能是不定式或动名词,不能是分词形式。这类考题命题还往往用动词原形作为干扰项进行考查,同学们做题需引起注意。如

It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview; _______the answers ready will be of great help. (北京卷)

A. To have had   B. Having had      C. Have                 D. Having

答案为D。动名词短语用作主语。

10. 考查“(be +) 过去分词+介词结构

有一类“be+过去分词+介词结构,如be interested in, be worried about, be lost in, be dressed in 等,也往往是命题的热点。如:

1. _______ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. (江苏卷)

A. Having lost      B. Lost                   C. Being lost         D. Losing

分析:答案为 B。因表示迷路于lose oneself in,题中没有oneself, 所以the two studentslose是被动关系,应该用过去分词作状语。

2. _______ in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. (湖南卷)

A. Dressed           B. To dress           C. Dressing          D. Having dressed

分析:答案为 A。由dress的宾语一定是人或oneself可知,dresshe是动宾关系,即hedress是被动关系,要用过去分词作状语,Dressed in …=As he is dressed in …

11. 非谓语动词的综合考查

有时命题者会将多个知识点综合起来进行考查,如在考查被动式的同时兼考完成式,在考查不定式的同时兼考分词,等等。如

(1) I don’t want _______ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. (天津卷)

A. to sound          B. to be sounded C. sounding         D. to have sounded

答案为 A。表示想要做某事”want后只能接to do,排除选项Csound likesound是系动词,属不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,排除选项Bsound 发生在want后,故不用完成式,排除选项D

(2) “Is Bob still performing?” “I’m afraid not. He is said _______ the stage already as he has become an official.” (江苏卷)

A. to have left      B. to leave             C. to have been left       D. to be left

答案为 A。因heleave是主动关系,不用被动式,排除选项CD;由already可知,要用完成式。

打印本文 打印本文  关闭窗口 关闭窗口