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英语动词时态详解:过去完成时
作者:陈根花  文章来源:本站原创  点击数  更新时间:2008-05-16  文章录入:admin  责任编辑:admin

 

三、过去完成时的用法补充

1. 表示过去未曾实现的想法

过去完成时除表示“过去的过去”外,还可表示过去未曾实现的想法和打算,通常连用的动词是 want, think, hope, plan, mean, expect, intend, suppose 等:

I had meant to come, but something happened. 我本想来,但有事就没有来。

I had hoped to send him a Christmas card, but I forgot to do so. 我本来希望寄给他一张圣诞卡的,但我忘了寄了。

2. 过去完成时用于特殊句式

hardly [scarcely, barely]when [before]…和no soonerthan…等句式中,主句通常要用过去完成时,而从句则通常要用一般过去时。这类句式均表示“一……就……”。如:

I had hardly closed my eyes when the telephone rang. 我刚合上眼,电话铃就响了。

I had no sooner checked into the hotel than he arrived. 我一住进旅馆,他就到了。

 

四、过去完成时用法的一点注意

当两个或多个过去发生的动作紧挨着并列出现时,尽管各动词之间有先后关系,我们仍然都用一般过去时。如:

Bill saluted, turned, and went out. 比尔敬礼后转身就出去了。

He paused and shook his head. 他稍停了一下,然后摇了摇头。

另外,由after, before, as soon as 等连词引导时间状语从句,由于这些连词已经清楚地表明了主从句谓语动词的先后顺序,所以对于先发生的动作也可用一般过去时表示。如:

I told them the news after you (had) left. 你走后我把这消息告诉了他们。

As soon as I (had) put the phone down it rang again. 我刚把电话一放下,它又响了。

 

五、过去完成时与一般过去时

(1) 过去完成时表示以过去某时间为起点以前所发生的动作或存在的状态,即:过去完成时强调过去的过去,而一般过去时只表示以现在时间为起点以前所发生的事情或存在的状态。如:

He studied there two years ago. 他在那儿学习了两年。(离现在两年)

He said he had studied there two years ago. 他说他在那儿学习了两年。(离他说话时两年)

(2) 表示过去某个时间以前所连续发生的两个或两个以上的动作时,一般用and, then, but按照动作的先后顺序连接,此时通常用一般过去时而不用过去完成时。如:

He said he went the shop and bought some food. 他说他去商店买了一些食品。

 

六、过去完成时典型考题(附详解) 

1. Helen ______ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ______ home.

A. has left; comes      B. left; had come       C. had left; came       D. had left; would come

分析:Cleave 应发生在 had to wait 这个过去动作之前过去的过去用过去完成时; 后一空用一般过去时表示过去将来。又如:

The house was quiet. Everybody had gone to bed. 屋子里很安静,大家都睡觉了。

They had finished the exam and the teacher was hustling to get the papers gathered up. 他们已经考完试了,老师正在赶紧收卷子。

People were quite often rude about him, often the people he had helped. 人们经常对他很无礼,其中有很多还曾得到过他的帮助。

2. John and I ______ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we ______ each other a couple of times before that.

分析:D。到目前为止成为朋友八年,用现在完成时; 在那次晚会相识成为朋友之前已经见过几次面,用过去完成时。又如:

The call was answered by a recorded message saying the company had closed early. 电话被转入录音信息,称公司早些时候已经下班。

Alice had been so deep in thought that she had walked past her car without even seeing it.  艾丽斯考虑问题入了神,连走过自己的车都没看见。

 

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