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不是连词的“连词”
作者:刘永科  文章来源:本站原创  点击数  更新时间:2013-05-24  文章录入:刘永科  责任编辑:admin



 

不是连词的“连词”  

■山东   刘永科  

     

记得在人教版新课标英语课本上,有这样一个句子:  

So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.   

在这个句子中every time做什么成分,起什么作用呢?    

这是一个很有意思的问题。看到这个句子,让我们想起了学过的一篇课文,题目叫做The band that wasn’t (a band)(不是乐队的乐队)。 那么,“Every time” is a conjunction that isn’t (a conjunction)(不是连词的连词),之所以这么说,是因为every time不是真正的连词,而是一个名词(词组),但是它在句中确实起到了连词的作用。要想知道every time的作用,首先要搞清楚So many thousands of terrified people diedthere was an outbreak之间是什么关系:So many thousands of terrified people died意为“成千上万的惊恐不已的人们相继死去”,there was an outbreak意为“有霍乱爆发”,every time意为“每次,每当”,从这三者之间的关系来看,every time就是一个引导时间状语的从属连词。整个句子的意思是:每当霍乱爆发时,成千上万的惊恐不已的人们相继死去。every timewhenever所起的作用无异。    

在现代英语中,像every time用作连词的情况,可以说俯拾皆是。又如:Every time I catch a cold, I have pain in my back. 我每次感冒背就痛。    

除了every time外,以下名词性词组如the minute, the moment, the instant, the time, the day, the week, the year, the first time, next time, any time, each time, the last time, from the time, by the time等,都可以作连词用,引导时间状语从句。例如:    

I recognized you the minute I saw you. 我一见你就认出了你。    

The machine starts the moment the button is pressed. 按钮一按,机器便开始作。    

He called on me the day he arrived. 他来的那一天就访问了我。    

We were there the week it snowed so heavily. 雪下得很大的那一周我们在那里。    

The first time I climbed onto the wall, I felt nervous.我第一次爬到墙上去时,感到胆怯。    

Next time you come, you will see the scientist. 你下次来时就会见到那位科学家。    

You may come back any time you want to. 你想回来随时可回来。    

Each time the tourist traveled by boat he got seasick. 这位旅客每次坐船行时都晕船。    

The last time she saw James, he was lying in bed. 她最后一次看詹姆斯时,他躺在床上。    

The truck will have arrived by the time you have all the things packed up. 到你把一切东西都捆好时,卡车也就来了。    

甚至有些副词如 immediately, directly, instantly 都可以用作连词引导状语从句,相当于as soon as,意为“一…………”。例如:    

You must show the gentleman in immediately he comes. 这位先生一来,你立即引他进来。    

There was a dead silence directly he appeared. 他一出现,便鸦雀无声。    

It began to rain instantly we arrived home. 我们一到家,天就开始下起雨来。    

上述情况多为名词(个别副词)变为“时间连词”。英语在朝着表达简洁的方向发展,只要不产生歧义,能省略的尽量省略。还有 the way 的用法更是如此,例如:    

Please do it the way I’ve told you. 请按照我告诉你的那样做。  

I'm talking to you just the way I'd talk to a boy of my own. 我和你说话就像和自己孩子说话一样。  

(以上两句中,the way 相当于 as 的意思,如果谁再说…in the way in which…,就是英语的倒退。)    

  

 

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