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重点中学英语语法讲义-代词
作者:柯帕斯  文章来源:本站原创  点击数  更新时间:2012-05-30  文章录入:admin  责任编辑:admin


 

重点中学英语语法讲义-代词

 

 

一、概说

代词是代替名词及起名词作用的短语或句子的词。代词可分为人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、相互代词、疑问代词、连接代词、关系代词、不定代词等九类。

二、人称代词

1. 人称代词的用法。人称代词在句中可以用作主语(用主格,如I, you, he, she, we, they, )和宾语(用宾格,如me, you, him, her, us, them)

He loves her, but she hates him. 他爱她,但她却讨厌他。

注:(1) 在口语中,当人称代词用作表语、用于than, as 之后或用于强调句中被强调时,可以用宾语:

“Who is it?” “It’s me.” “是谁呀?”“是我。

He sings better than me. 他比我唱得好。

He is as tall as her. 他和她一样高。

It’s me who did it. 这是我干的。

但是,若than, as 后的人称代词后跟有动词,则必须用主格:

He sings better than I do. / He is as tall as she is.

(2) 单独使用的人称代词通常用宾格:

“I’m tired.” “Me too.” “我累了。”“我也累了。

“Who wants this?” “Me.” “谁要这个?”“我要。

(3) 有时用主格或宾格会导致意思的变化:

I like you better than he. 我比他更喜欢你。为I like you better than he likes you.之略。

I like you better than him. 我喜欢你胜过喜欢他。为I like you better than he likes him.之略。

2. 人称代词的排序:

(1) 人称代词的排列顺序为:单数人称代词通常按二三一排列,即you, he and I;复数人称代词通常按一二三排列,即 we, you and they

You, he and I are of the same age. 你,他和我都是同一年龄。

We , you and they are all good citizens. 我们,你们和他们都是好公民。

但若是用于承担责任或错误等场合,则可把第一人称 I 置于其他人称代词之前:

I and Tom are to blame. 我和汤姆该受批评。

比较:Tom and I hope to go there. 汤姆和我想去那儿。

但是,you and I 是固定结构,语序通常不宜颠倒。

(2) 在通常情况下,人称代词在句子中出现在它所代替的名词之后,即先出现名词,再出现相应的代词。但是,在书面语中,有时也可出现代词,后出现代词所代替的名词:

As soon as it had hopped off, the plane picked up speed. 飞机刚一起飞,就加了速。(比较:As soon as the plane had hopped off, it picked up speed.)

3. 人称代词后跟名词同位语。有些人称代词后有时可跟同位语:

These small desks are for us students. 这些小课桌是给我们学生的。

We girls often go to the movies together. 我们女孩子常一起去看电影。

He asked you boys to be quiet. 他要你们男孩子安静些。

三、物主代词

1. 物主代词的用法。物主代词分形容词性物主代词(my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their)和名词性物主代词(mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs)。形容词性物主代词在句只用作定语;名词性物主代词则不能用作定语,但可以用作主语、宾语、表语、连用of作定语:

His son is taller than hers. 他的儿子比她的儿子高。

Her son is a friend of ours. 她的儿子是我们的朋友。

Ours is a great country. 我们的国家是一个伟大的国家

This is your pen. Mine is in the box. 这是你的铅笔,我的在铅笔盒里。

注:可以说 a friend of mine (ours, yours, hers, his, theirs),但是不能说 a friend of me (us, you, her, him, theirs),但是名词+of it”有时可用来代替“its+名词,如 its price 也可说成 the price of it

2. 物主代词与own 连用。为了强调,有时可在物主代词后加上own一词:

Mind your own business. 别管闲事。

I saw it with my own eyes. 那是我亲眼看到的。

有可用 of one’s own 置于名词后作定语:

I hope to have a room of my own. / I hope to have my own house. 我希望有自己的房子。

3. 使用物主代词注意点和易错点:

(1) 要注意英语与汉语使用物主代词的差异。汉语说我校,说成英语应是my school,而不能是 I school;汉语说他妈,说成英语应是his mother,而不能是 he mother;同样地,汉语说你先生,说成英语应是your husband,而不能是 you husband。另外,有些在英语中必用的物主代词在汉语中往往无需表达,如:

听到这个消息,他摇了摇头。

误:Hearing the news he shook head.

正:Hearing the news he shook his head.

汉语通常只说摇头,不说摇某人的头,而英语则说 shake one’s head

 

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