|all this 还是 all these|
|作者：张必成 文章来源：本站原创 点击数： 更新时间：2018-03-28||
all this 还是 all these
在做短文改错和写作的时候，我们经常会遇到上文对事件或事物列举的情形，而在列举之后对于如何作总结性衔接的问题大家时常会感到有些困惑。本文试就all this和all these在语篇中的这种功能及其在具体应试中的应对策略做一下简单探讨。
I will spend this summer holiday in the countryside. Although the city is modern and convenience, there are still some problems, such as airs pollution, crowdedness and noise. In the countryside I can enjoy comfortable and quiet life. There, the air is fresh but the water is clean. Trees are green and birds is singing. I can also go to boating, fishing and swimming in the lake. What’s worse, I can climb the hills. All this will be interesting and good for your health. Above all, I can learn more about nature. So I wanted to go to the countryside for a change. I’m looking forward to the come of my summer holiday. （上文黑色粗体字是需要改动之处）
这篇文章中最让同学们及老师纠结的就是这里的all this --- 既然上文列举了那么多在乡间生活的方方面面的事，那么这里的this要不要改成these呢？
一、这里实际上涉及到的是二者在语篇中回指 (back referring) 功能方面的区别。咱们先看看在谈到 this/that/these/those这四个词单独表回指功能的时候, L.G.亚历山大在其《朗文英语语法中》p592的例句及观点:
1. He was very late. This / That delayed us. 他来得晚，这使得我们耽搁了。
2. —I broke my leg and my sister’s house burnt down. 我的腿摔断了,我妹妹的房子烧毁了。
—When did this / that happen? 这一切是啥时候的事啊？
注意这里this/that 用来回指的是上文的两件事。亚历山大明确指出，这里绝不可以使用these/ those 用来回指。
二、英语中，all this类似于一个惯用语, 其多用于对上文列举一连串事件进行总结，在语篇上起到承上启下的衔接作用。所以说本篇短文改错中的this无须改用these，相反，这样使用反而会使语言显得更加地道。
all these不像all this一样具有惯用语的性质，在《柯林斯高阶》和《汉英大词典》总共出现的带有all these的30个例句中，these都毫无例外地后跟一个复数名词。所以综上，这句话不必把this改为these。
1. 【2004年全国Ⅰ卷第30题】 You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is where I disagree.
2. 【2009年江苏卷写作满分范文】With the functions of inserting, deleting, moving and copying, it enables us to edit test, browse web page and download what we want. It can even bring us a flood of music, movies and PC games. Just imagine, all this can be done with a cute mouse.
3. 【美文导刊英语段落模板】Why______? The first reason is that ______.The second reason is ______.The third is ______. For all this, the main cause of ______due to ______.
4. 【1999年上海高考写作范文】There are several reasons why English is my favorite subject. First, English is ......; Secondly，it is believed...... For all these reasons we should not only learn English but master it in the shortest time possible.
5. 【2007年全国卷II写作范文】It also provides hot water bath service. You can enjoy both Chinese and western food in the restaurant and drink coffee and tea in the cafe. The swimming pool is open for free the whole day. All these services can bring great convenience to you and are very enjoyable.
all this 与 all these 在语篇中都有总结性回指(back referring)上文的功能。前者往往单独使用，不管上文提及的是一件还是若干事物和事实; 后者多回指上文具体的事物，往往后跟复数名词。使用前者往往显得语言更加地道。准确掌握其用法在实战应试特别是写作中意义重大。
I will spend this summer holiday in the countryside. Although the city is modern and convenient, there are still some problems, such as air pollution, crowdedness and noise. In the countryside I can enjoy a comfortable and quiet life. There, the air is fresh and the water is clean. Trees are green and birds are singing. I can also go boating, fishing and swimming in the lake. What’s more, I can climb the hills. All this will be interesting and good for my health. Above all, I can learn more about nature. So I want to go to the countryside for a change. I’m looking forward to the coming of my summer holiday.
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