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动词时态典型陷阱题分析
作者:hmx    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2016/11/15    
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动词时态典型陷阱题分析

 

1. “I _____ his telephone number.” “I have his number, but I ____ to bring my phone book.”

A. forget, forget                                   B. forgot, forgot

C. forget, forgot                                   D. forgot, forget

【陷阱】容易误选A,认为忘记是现在的事。

【分析】仔细体会一下对话的语境:第一个人说我忘记他的电话号码了,这个忘记应该是现在的情况,即现在忘记了,要不然就没有必要同对方说此话了,故第一空应填 forget;第二个人说我有他的号码,但我忘记带电话本了,这个忘记应该是过去的情况,即过去忘记带电话本,所以现在电话本不在身上(注意句中的转折连词 but),故第二空应填 forgot,即答案选应C。请再看一例:

— Oh, I ______ where he lives.

— Don’t you carry your address book?

No, I ______ to bring it.

A. forget, forget                                   B. forgot, forgot

C. forget, forgot                                   D. forgot, forget

答案选C,理由同上。

2. I had hoped to see her off at the station, but I _____ too busy.

A. was                                                  B. had been

C. would be                                         D. would have been

【陷阱】容易误选BD,认为前句用了had hoped,所以此句谓语要用BD与之呼应。

【分析】但正确答案为A,前一句谓语用had hoped,表示的是过去未曾实现的想法或打算,可以译为本想,而后一句说我太忙,这是陈述过去的一个事实,所以要用一般过去时。请做以下类似试题(答案均为A)

(1) We had hoped to catch the 10:20 train, but _____ it was gone.

A. found                                               B. had found

C. would find                                      D. would have found

(2) We had hoped that you would be able to visit us, but you _____.

A. didn’t                                               B. hadn’t

C. needn’t                                           D. would not have

(3) We had wanted to come to see him, but we ____ no time.

A. had                                                  B. had had

C. would have                                    D. would have had

(4) I had expected to come over to see you last night, but someone ______ and I couldn’t get away.

A. called                                               B. had called

C. would call                                       D. would have called

(5) The traffic accident wouldn’t have happened yesterday, but the driver _______ really careless.

A. was                                                  B. is

C. were                                                D. had been

3. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late.

A. look, have                                       B. looking, had

C. look, had                                         D. looking, have

【陷阱】此题容易误选D,认为第一空用现在分词表伴随,第二空填 have 的一般现在时,以保持与前面时态的一致性。

【分析】其实,此题应选C,第一空应填 look, 因为这是祈使句的谓语;第二空应填 had,因为前一句说看看时间吧,这一看当然知道了现在很迟的情形,不知道这么迟了显然应是过去的事,故应用一般过去时态,许多同学由于忽略这一隐含的语境而误选。

4. “Your phone number again? I _____ quite catch it.” “It’s 4331577”

A. didn’t                                               B. couldn’t

C. don’t                                                D. can’t

【陷阱】此题容易误选C,认为此处要用一般现在时态,表示现在没听清对方的话

【分析】其实,此题答案应选A,根据上文的语境请把你的电话号码再说一遍好吗?”可知没听清对方的电话号码应是在说此话以前,故应用一般过去时态。请看以下类似试题:

(1) “Mr Smith isn’t coming tonight.” “ But he _____.”

A. promises                                         B. promised

C. will promise                                    D. had promised

答案选B他答应(要来)”应发生在过去。

(2) “Hey, look where you are going!” “Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _____.”

A. I’m not noticing                              B. I wasn’t noticing

C. I haven’t noticed                           D. I don’t notice

答案选B我没注意是对方提醒之前的事,现经对方一提醒,当然注意到了。

(3) “Oh it’s you ! I ________ you.” “I’ve had my hair cut.”

A. didn’t realize                                  B. haven’t realized

C. didn’t recognize                            D. don’t recognized 

答案选C没认出是你是说此话之前的事,说此话时显然已经认出了对方。

(4) “What’s her new telephone number?” “Oh, I _____.”

A. forget                                               B. forgot

C. had forgotten                                 D. am forgetting

此题应选A,从语境上看,忘记的时间应是现在,即指现在不记得了。

(5) “Since you’ve agreed to go, why aren’t you getting ready?” “But I ______ that you would have me start at once.”

A. don’t realize                                   B. didn’t realize

C. hadn’t realized                              D. haven’t realized

答案选B没意识到是对方提醒之前的事。

(6) “It’s twelve o’clock, I think I must be off now.” “Oh, really? I ______ it at all.”

A. don’t realize                                   B. haven’t realized

C. didn’t realize                                  D. hadn’t realized

答案选C没意识到是在听到的话之前的事。

5. Mr Smith ______ a book about China last year but I don’t know whether he has finished it.

A. has written                                      B. wrote

C. had written                                     D. was writing

【陷阱】容易误选BC

【分析】此题应选D,这是由 but I don’t know whether he has finished it 这一句话的语境决定的,全句意为史密斯先生去年在写一本书,但我不知道他现在是否写完了。有的同学可能由于受 last year的影响而误选B。但若选B,则句子前半部分的意思则变为史密斯先生去年写了一本书,既然是写了,那么这与下文的但我不知道他现在是否写完了相矛盾。

6. He has changed a lot. He _______ not what he _______.

A. is, is                                                 B. was, was

C. is, was                                             D. was, is

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】最佳答案选C,上文说变化很大,即现在不是过去的那个样子了,故第一空填is,第二空填 was(其实第二空也可用 used to be)。请看类例:

“What place is it?” “Haven’t you found out we _____ back where we ______?”

A. were, had been                             B. have been, are

C. are, were                                         D. are, had been

答案选CWe are back where we were 的意思是我们(现在)又回到刚才来过的地方

7. He is very busy. I don’t know if he _____ or not tomorrow.

A. come                                                B. comes

C. will come                                        D. is coming

【陷阱】此题容易误选B。认为 if 引导的是条件状语从句,从句谓语要用一般现在时表示将来意义。

【分析】其实,此题答案应选C,句中if引导的不是条件状语从句(if≠如果),而是宾语从句(if=是否),句意为他很忙,我不知道明天他是否会来。请看以下类似试题:

(1) I don’t know if she _____, but if she ____ I will let you know.

A. comes, comes        B. will come, will come

C. comes, will come     D. will come, comes

答案选 D,第一个 if 引导的是宾语从句,第二个 if 引导的是条件状语从句。

(2) “When _____ he come?” “I don’t know, but when he _____, I’ll tell you.”

A. does, comes         B. will, will come

C. does, will come      D. will, comes

答案选 D,第一个 when 疑问副词,用于引出一个特殊疑问句;第二个 when是从属连词,用于引导时间状语从句。

(3) “When he _____ is not known yet.” “But when he ____, he will be warmly welcomed.”

A. comes, comes         B. will come, will come

C. comes, will come      D. will come, comes

答案选 D,第一个 when 引导的是主语从句,第二个 when引导的是时间状语从句。

8. The bridge, which _____ 1688, needs repairing.

A. is dated from                                  B. was dated from

C. dates from                                      D. dated from

【陷阱】此题容易误选BD,认为句中用了 1688 这个过去时间,所以应选过去时态,又因为 date from 不用于被动语态,所以只能选D

【分析】其实此题的最佳答案应是C,因为 date from 的意思是自某时起存在至今”(have existed since),它通常用于一般现在时,而不用过去时态(尽管其后接的总是表示过去的时间)。如:

The church dates from 1176. 这座教堂是六世纪建的。

The castle dates from the 14th century. 这座城堡是14世纪建的。

但若所谈论的东西现在已不复存在,则可用一般过去时。如:

The church, which dated from the 13th century, was destroyed in an earthquake two years ago.  那座教堂是13世纪建成的,两年前在一次地震中被毁了。

注:与 date from 同义的 date back to 也有类似用法。

9. “You’ve left the light on.” “Oh, so I have. _____ and turn it off.”

A. I’ll go                                                B. I’ve gone

C. I go                                                   D. I’m going

【陷阱】容易误选D

【分析】AD两者均可表示将来,填入空格处似乎都可以。但实际上只有A是最佳的,因为根据上下文的语境来看,我去把灯关掉这一行为是说话人听了对方的话后临时想到的,而不是事先准备的。而按英语习惯:will be going to后接动词原形均可表示意图,但意图有强弱之分,如果是事先考虑过的意图,要用 be going to;如果不是事先考虑过的,而是说话时刻才临时想到的意图,则用 will。比较:

“I’ve come out without any money.” “Never mind, I will lend you some.” “我出来没带钱。”“没关系,我借给你。”(句中用will lend,表示钱给对方是临时想到的,即听了对方的话后临时作出的反应)

I’ve bought a typewriter and I’m going to learn to type. 我买了台打字机,我想学打字。(句中用 be going to learn to type,表示说话人要学打字是事先准备的,并为此买了台打字机)

 

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