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as well as后接动词的何种形式
作者:倪肖丁    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2016/8/21    
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as well as后接动词的何种形式

 

西安  倪肖丁

 

《英语常见问题解答大辞典》(赵振才,黑龙江人民出版社1998)在as well as条目下回答了以下问题:

【问】Thomas was a real friend, for he advised me as well as helping me with my Arabic. (TOEFL, 73.10) 请分析句中的错误。

《英语常见问题解答大辞典》回答说:as well as,如同andor一样,起并列连词的作用。它所连接的成分要互相对等,即名词与名词并列,动词与动词并列,分词与分词并列。上面句中的he advised…as well as helping违背了这一原则,故将helping改为helped

看来编者主张as well as后的动词形式必须与前文的动词形式对等,即便是谓语动词也同样如此。因为分词helping与谓语advised不对等,所以要改为 helped.

再来看看同一编著者在其另一本书《初高中英语考点难点详解词典》(黑龙江人民出版社2002)中是如何回答读者下列问题的:

【问】Charles and Linda Mason do all of these things as well as climbed buildings.(全国高考,94-IV)

上面是短文改错题的示例,要求将climbed改为climbingclimb。将climbed改为climbing,我是理解的,因为as well as可用作介词。但是,将climbed改为climb,我就不理解了。

(本文作者注:经核实,【问】中所引用的不是1994,而是1992年全国高考试题短文改错原题的一个小题)

编者在回答中重复了as well as用作并列连词,要求连接的成分具有相同的词性或形式的观点。并指出上面的句子中doclimb并列,是符合平行结构原则的。

但问题在于高考试题的首选答案显然是climbing,为什么与句中的do没有保持对等?是否违反了编者主张的平行结构原则?编者此时的沉默似乎表明已经放弃了自己在回答上述第一问时所坚持的主张,也说明其对as well as后使用何种动词形式感到了困惑。

其实,对as well as后使用何种动词形式有困惑或误解的现象很普遍。比如,《新课标中学英语惯用法词典》(黄黎, 2005. 四川辞书出版社)认为下面的句子是错的,应把answering改为answered,因为其中的as well as是连词,不是介词:

He advised me as well as answering my questions. 他给我提出建议并回答了我的问题。

这说明编著者对as well as存在两方面误解:

(1) as well as的着重点并非是其后的信息,而是其前的信息。所以该词典原句的汉译是不适当的。正确的汉译应该是他不仅回答了我的问题,而且还给了我一些建议

(2) 原句本来就是正确的,句中的as well as就是介词,而不是连词。将answering改为answered不符合英语习惯用法。

那么,as well as后究竟使用何种动词形式呢?似乎还没有一本教科书或者语言工具书对此做出过全面的解说。但通过英文原文的阅读,对英文语言工具书的查阅以及语言学者论述的分析,我们还是能够理出基本的头绪。

一般说来,as well as作为准并列连词(QUASI-COORDINATORS)它既具有并列连词的功能,也具有介词或从属连词的功能。正因为as well as的这两种功能,使得其后的动词形式具有多样性的特征。

1. as well as后可以接-ing分词

as well as后接非限定的-ing分词形式是最为常见的一种现象。该-ing分词形式可以与句中的谓语动词相对应。如:

"Aren't I good? I've done all the shopping as well as cleaning the whole house. (cide-halo)

She sings as well as playing the piano. (PEU)

The following discussion identifies seven main categories, as well as discussing other less common meanings. (LGSWE)

She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer.OALD

The organization gives help and support to people in need, as well as raising money for local charities. (LDOCE)

She has all her school work to do, as well as looking after her sick mother. (CEED)

As well as helping the environment, energy conservation reduces your fuel bills. (CIDE)

She negotiates the licences as well as ordering the equipment. (CCEU)

也可以与句中的非谓语动词形式(包括情态动词或助动词后的无to不定式)相对应。例如:

Linda was completely exhausted from trying to hold down a full-time job as well as looking after the home.(LPVD)

The joint venture, Jiaxing Independence Auto Design &; Development Co. Ltd., planned to produce up to 10,000 taxis at its large Jiaxing facility, as well as making kits that could be assembled at franchised factories around China.(CCAE)

Diarrhoea can make you feel weak, as well as putting you off your food. (CCED)

Java applets are capable of handling a wide variety of graphic formats as well as creating graphics on the fly. (LDOCE)

 

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