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《that用法新探》(下)
作者:李  翔    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2013-6-4    
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that用法新探》()

   

■本站特约作者   

   

五、连词that

5.1引言

连词that根据其动能,可分为名词性从属连词that和副词性从属连词that。名词性从属连词that用来引导名词性从句,其作用相当于名词,在复合句充当主语、宾语、表语和同位语,其引导的从句分别为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。连词that在复合句中只起连接作用,没有任何意义,因此也不充当任何句子成分。有些情况下可以省略。例如:

That the moon has no light of its own is well-known. (主语从句)

All of us know (that) the moon has no light of its own. (宾语从句)

The reason is that the moon has no light of its own. (表语从句)

The fact that the moon has no light of its own is well-known. (同位语从句)

副词性从属连词that用来引导副词性从句,其作用相当于副词,在复合句中充当状语,因此又叫作状语从句。

5.2连词that引导主语从句

顾名思义,连词that引导的主语从句应放在主语的位置(即句首) 作主语,that没有任何意思,在句中也不充当任何成分,但却不可以省略。例如:That she should be ungrateful cut him to the heart.

That he is honest is undeniable.

That matter is composed of particles leaves no room for doubt.

这种结构通常用在正式文体中,目的是强调that从句。因此,更普通的结构是把that从句放在句末,另外用it放在主语位置而形成“It…that从句结构。其中that从句称为真正主语 (Real Subject) it称为形式主语(Formal Subject) that有时可以省略。下列各组中两句话的意思完全相同,只是使用的场合有别而已:

That he will come today is quite possible.

It’s quite possible (that) he will come today is quite possible.

That some women do not earn equal pay for equal work is unfair. 

It’s unfair (that) some women do not earn equal pay for equal work.

“It…that从句有下列几种不同的搭配形式。

5.2.1.1  It+v-link+形容词+ that从句,that经常省略。

常用的v-link 有:appearbe, become, feel, look, prove, remain, seem

根据John Sinclair主编的COLLINS COBUILD GRAMMAR PATTERNS2: NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES(上海外语教育出版社 200011月第1) P480-484“It+v-link+形容词+ that从句可分为以下八种:

1. THE ‘LIKELY’ GROUP 

These adjectives indicate whether something is likely or true, or not. 

(1) arguable  可证实的;可论证的

It’s arguable that the legislation has had little effect on young people’s behaviour. 

(2) axiomatic 不言而喻的;不证自明的

It is axiomatic that as people grow older they generally become less agile.

(3) believable可信的

In the periods of Wei and Jin, being buried in homeland was very popular. It was more believable that he was buried in his homeland Jurong, which was also recorded in literatures. 

(4) certain必然的;必定的;肯定的

It is certain that Rodney arrived the previous day. 

(5) conceivable可想到的;可想象的;可以相信的

It is just conceivable that a single survivor might be found.

(5) correct对的,正确的

He believes that it is correct that he is.他相信他是正确的。

(6) definite 明确的;确定的

It is definite that your dog has been poisoned, sir. Again, can you tell me with whom you have had differences lately?  

(7) demonstrable可证明的;可论证的;可表明的;明显的

By the way, it is demonstrable that the American people are working harder than they were 20 years ago…

(8) doubtful未必的;不大可能的

For a time it seemed doubtful that he would move at all... 

(9) false不正确的;虚假的;错误的

It is false that only a person in authority is an authority.

(10) feasible可行的;行得通的;做得到的

That may be fine for the US, but it’s not feasible for a mass European market.

(11) guaranteed有保证的;确定的

It’s guaranteed that my colleagues think I’m deranged...

(12) imaginable可想像的;可能的

It is scarcely imaginable that it should be otherwise.

(13) implausible难以置信的;不像真实的

It seems implausible that the projects would have gone ahead without her backing.

(14) impossible不可能的;做不到的

It is impossible that a body not have natural motion but only that of the animals.

(15) improbable不大可能的;未必会(发生)

It seems improbable that this year’s figure will fall much below last year’s 75,000. 

(16) inconceivable不能想象的;不可思议的

It was inconceivable to me that Toby could have been my attacker...

(17) incontestable无可争辩的,不可否认的;不容置辩

After all, it is simply incontestable that Melville presents him as a man of admirable balance: brave but modest, firmly in control of his men without being overbearing, studious without being pedantic.

(18) incontrovertible无可辩驳的;不容置疑的;无可否认的

It is incontrovertible that race relations in the American military services have improved enormously.

(19) incredible不可思议的;难以置信的

It is incredible that they have been allowed to go this far.

(incredible=impossible or very difficult to believe)

(20) indisputable无可争辩的;不容置疑的

It is indisputable that birds in the UK are harbouring this illness...

 

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