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语法陷阱题800例—非谓语动词
作者:HMX    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2012-6-6    
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10. “Do you have anything more ______, sir?” “No. You can have a rest or do something else.”

A. typing                                                  B. to be typed

C. typed                                                   D. to type

【陷阱】容易误选D,根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。

【分析】最佳答案是B。确实,在“have+宾语+不定式结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义,如 I have some clothes to wash等,即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to wash 具有被动关系,但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是,这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系,如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you来完成的,而是由说话者来完成的。比较:

Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去上海吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?

I’m going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去上海,我随身要带很多东西去。

11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor’s office.

A. put                                                      B. to put

C. putting                                                 D. having put

【陷阱】容易误选BC,误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。

【分析】正确答案选A。句中的took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词,其时态应一致。类似地如(答案选A)

I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station.

A. paid                                                     B. paying

C. to pay                                                  D. having paid

但是,下面一题稍有不同:

Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance.

A. left; lain open                                       B. leaving; lying open

C. leaving; lie opened                                D. left; lay opened

此题答案选Bleaving 在此表结果,lying open 与其前的动词leave有关,leave 后接现在分词作宾语补足语,表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。

12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well.

A. be, to do                                              B. was, doing

C. be, doing                                              D. was, to do

【陷阱】容易误选B

【分析】其实正确答案是A。分析如下:

(1) 第一空填 be,是因为insisted 后接that从句,从句谓语要用“should+动词原形这样的虚拟语气,其中的should也可省略。

(2) 第二空要填to do,是因为此句谓语为被动语态,假若将此句转换成主动语态,则是 …should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of … to do sth (利用……做某事)这一结构。另外,还有 make the most of (尽量利用)make the best of (尽量利用)等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子:

(1) The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station.

A. to build                                                B. building

C. build                                                    D. built

此题答案选 A,不是 B。为便于理解,可先考虑以下结构:

…make use of every part of the materials to build the power station

由此可见,make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials,其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。

(2) Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense?

A. making                                                B. to make

C. how to make                                         D. having made

此题答案选B,不是A。句子主语是 the wayyou thought of 是修饰主语的定语从句,不定式 to make the water clean 也是修饰主语的定语,也就是说,句子主语带有两个定语修饰语。

13. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year.

A. carried out                                           B. carrying out

C. carry out                                              D. to carry out

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】答案选A。此句结构较复杂,现分析如下:

(1) that they would like to see _____ the next year 是修饰名词 the plan 的定语从句。

(2) 由于 the plan 与空格处的 carry out 有被动关系,故填过去分词 carried out

 

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