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重点中学英语语法讲义-直接引语与间接引语
作者:HMYY    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2012/5/31    
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重点中学英语语法讲义-直接引语与间接引语

 

 

一、概说

引用别人的话一般有两种方式,一种是直接述别人的原话,并把它放在引号内,这叫直接引语;另一种是用自己的话来转述别人的话,并且不能用引号,这就是间接引语。间接引语在许多情况下构成宾语从句。如:

“I want to buy a house in the country.” Jack said. 杰克说:我想在乡下买座房子。”(直接引语)

Jack said that he wanted to buy a house in the country. 杰克他说他想在乡下买座房子。(间接引语)

“Did you buy any books for me?” he asked his mother. 他问他母亲:给我买书没有?”

He asked his mother if he had bought any books for him. 他问他母亲给他买书没有。

“Don’t sleep in class again.” the teacher told Jim. 老师对吉姆说:上课不要再睡觉了。

The teacher told Jim not to sleep in class again. 老师叫吉姆上课不要再睡觉了。

二、直接引语变间接引语的五点变化

1. 时态的变化

直接引语变为间接引语时,若主句为过去时态,变为间接引语的宾语从句通常要将时态往后推一个,即:一般现在时变为一般过去时,一般将来时变为过去将来时,现在进行时变为过去进行时,现在完成时变为过去完成时,一般过去时也变为过去完成时,等等(若直接引语为过去完成时,变为间接引语可以不变)。另外,若直接引语中有情态动词can, may等,也应变成过去式could, might(情态动词must可以变为had to,也可不变,should, ought to, had better 等可以不变)

“I want to stay here.” he said. 他说:我想留在这儿。

→He said that he wanted to stay there. 他说他想留在那儿。

She said, “It’s raining very hard.” 他说:雨下得很大。

→He said that it was raining very hard. 他说雨下得很大。

Jim said, “I can speak Chinese.” 吉姆说:我会讲汉语。

→Jim said that he could speak Chinese. 吉姆说他会讲汉语

(1) 若直接引语为客观真理,则变为间接引语时时态不变:

He said, “The sun rises in the east.” 他说:太阳从东方升起。

→He said that the sun rises in the east. 他说太阳从东方升起。

(2) 有时由于直接引语有特定的过去时间状语,变为间接引语时时态也可不变:

He said, “ was born in 1988.说:我是1988年生的。

→He said that he was born in 1988. 他说他是1988年生的。

2. 时间状语的变化

直接引语变间接引语时,有些时间状语根据情况也要相应的改动:如将now改为then,将today 改为that day,将tonight改为that night,将yesterday改为the day before,将this month改为that month,将last week改为the week before,将three years ago改为three years before,将tomorrow改为the next day,将next year改为the next year,等等:

He said, “I’m very busy now.” 他说:我现在很忙。

→He said that he was very busy then. 他说他当时很忙。

He said, “I want to leave today.” 他说:他想今天离开。

→He said that he wanted to leave that day. 他说他想那天就离开。

He said, “She left yesterday.” 他说:她昨天离开了。

→He said that she had left the day before. 他说她前一天就离开了。

She said, “I’ll tell you tomorrow.” 她说:我明天告诉你。

→She said that she would tell me the next day. 她说她第二天告诉我。

以上变化有时应视情况而定,若在当时转述,now不必改为then;若在当天转述,today, yesterday, tomorrow等不必改为that day, the day before, the next day等;若在当周转述,this week, last week 不必改为that week, the last week;若在当年转述,this year, last year 不必改为that year, the last year等。

3. 代词的变化

在直接引语变为间接引语时,有些代词也要作相应的变化,如指示代词thisthese通常变为thatthose。同时人称代词、物主代词、反身代词等也要根据具体情况作出合理的调整:

He said, “This is my seat.” 他说:这是我的座位。

→He said that that was his seat. 他说那是他的座位。

“I can look after myself.” she said. 她说:我能照顾自己。

→She said that she could look after herself. 她说他能照顾自己。

若场所和地点不发生改变,thisthat也可以不变。

 

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