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重点中学英语语法讲义-分词
作者:HMYY    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2012/5/31    
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在使用分词的逻辑主语时还要注意根据句意判断是主动还是被动,如:

(2) _____ many times, he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told   B. Though to be told

C. Having told           D. He was told

根据句意,he tell 应是被动关系。从时间上看,应该是被告诉在先,没有理解在后,故选A。比较下题由于句中用了并列连词but,情况有所不同:

(3) _____ many times, but he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told   B. Though he was told

C. To have been told  D. He was told

此题答案选D,句中的并列连词 but 表明整个句子为并列句,同时表明 but 前应是一个独立的句子,而不能是一个非谓语动词短语(所以不能选AC)

3. 分词逻辑主语的特例

一般说来,分词作状语,它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,但事实上有少数例外的特殊情况:

(1) 某些表示说话人态度的一些惯用分词表达,它们在用作状语时其逻辑主语可以与句子主语不一致:

Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来女人比男人活得长。

Judging from what you sayhe ought to succeed. 从你的话看他应当能成功。

Considering the distancehe arrived very quickly. 考虑到路程,他到达是很快的。

Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素,你最好离开。

(2) 当句子含有先行主语itthere时,有时有作状语的分词短语可以与先行主语不一致:

Having so little time, there was not much that I could do. 由于时间很少,我能做的事很有限。

Being French, it’s surprising that she’s such a terrible cook. 她是法国人,但她做饭做得那么糟真是令人感到惊奇。

(3) 当分词已转化为介词或连词,此时也无需考虑主语一致问题:

Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? 要是她不来我们怎么办?(supposing为连词,意为假若”)

Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. 考虑到他们没有经验,这工作已做得很不错了。(given为介词,意为考虑到”)

(4) 当分词暗含的逻辑主语为表示泛指意义的oneyou时,也无需考虑主语的一致性问题:

In doing such work, patience is needed. 做这种工作需要耐心。(=When one does such work, patience is needed.)

4. 分词的独立主格结构

在通常情况下,分词作状语时它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,若不一致,则应改用其他句型,如:

误:Crossing the road, a car knocked him down.

正:Crossing the road, he was knocked down by a car. 过马路时他被车撞倒了。

正:When he was crossing the road, a car knocked him down. 他过马路时车子把他撞倒了。

解决状语分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的问题,也可在分词前加一个名词或代词,使之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式,故称分词的独立主格结构:

The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。

The weather being fine, we went swimming. 天气很好,我们就去游泳了。

He being absent, nothing couldn’t be done. 由于他缺席,什么事也干不成。

以上各句的the job, the weather, he 等不能省略。

六、重点考点原创精练

1. Anyone ______ bags, boxes, or whatever, was stopped by the police.

A. seen carry             B. seen carrying         C. saw to carry          D. saw carrying

2. The plane crashed, _____ all 200 people aboard.

A. killed                   B. having killed         C. killing                  D. had killed

3. We solved the problem by reducing our costs and ______ more money.

A. borrowed              B. borrowing             C. would borrow       D. had borrowed

4. I asked the boss for a month’s holiday and, _____ it or not, he agreed.

A. believe                 B. to believe              C. believing              D. believed

5. The new manager started last week, ______ with him plenty of new ideas.

A. bringing               B. brought                C. to bring                D. to have brought

6. Any student ______ will be disqualified from the exam.(www.yygrammar.com)

A. catching cheating   B. catching to cheat    C. caught cheating     D. caught to cheat

7. She read the letter through before sending it, ______ for spelling mistakes.

A. checked                B. to be checking       C. checking               D. having checked

8. Before you decide to leave your job, ______ consider the effect it will have on your family.

A. consider               B. considering           C. to consider            D. considered

9. If you’re going on a long car journey, ______ sure the vehicle’s in good condition.

A. making                 B. to make                C. make                    D. having made

10. _______ the road round to the right and you’ll find his house.

A. Follow                 B. Following             C. To be following     D. Having followed

11. He arrived at the office early, ______ a good example to the others.

A. set                       B. to set                    C. to be set                D. having set

12. He pushed his way through the crowd, ______ “Excuse me.”

A. to say                   B. said                      C. saying                  D. having saying

13. The film star walked to his car, ______ a crowd of journalists.

A. followed by          B. following by         C. to follow              D. to be followed by

14. — Where is David?

—He is upstairs ______ ready to go out.

A. to get                   B. getting                  C. to be getting          D. having got

15. If you go there alone after dark you might be get ______.

A. attacked and robbed                              B. attacking and robbing

B. to attack and rob    D. to be attacked and robbed

16. She gets about quite a lot, ______ for an international company.

A. working               B. works                   C. having worked      D. to be working 

17. _____ him enough time to get home before you telephone.

A. Give                    B. To give                 C. Giving                  D. Given

18. She didn’t want to _____ a secretary all her life, so she went back to college.

A. go on being          B. go on to be           C. go to be                D. go being

19. He was reading his book, completely ______ to the world.

A. lost                      B. losing                   C. to lose                  D. to having lost

20. Don’t sit there ______ — come and help me!

A. watch                   B. watching               C. to watch               D. to be watching

21. I found I could easily make myself _______ by using sign language.

A. understood            B. understand            C. to understand        D. being understood

22. Do not leave the building unless _______ to do so.

A. to instruct             B. instructed              C. being instructed     D. instructing

23. If you don’t succeed the first time, ______ again.(www.yygrammar.com)

A. try                       B. to try                    C. trying                   D. to be trying

24. He’d walked the streets all night ______ somewhere to stay.

A. looked                  B. looked for             C. looking                 D. looked for

25. Look at that little boy ______ about — perhaps he’s lost his mother.

A. wander                 B. wandering             C. to be wandering     D. being wandering

 

参考答案:

01—05 BCBAA  06—10 CCACA  11—15 BCABA  16—20 AAAAB  21—25 ABADB

 

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