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重点中学英语语法讲义-系动词
作者:HMYY    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2012/5/31    
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重点中学英语语法讲义-系动词

 

 

一、概说

连系动词是表示不完全谓语关系的动词,它与其后的表语一起构成谓语。常见的连系动词有be()become(成为)get(变成)remain(还是)seem(似乎是)look(看上去)feel(感觉)等。连系动词后的表语通常是名词和形容词,有时也可以是代词、数词、副词、介词短语、不定式、动名词、从句等:

His English is excellent. 他的英语很棒。(跟形容词)

He is a famous poet. 他是著名诗人。(跟名词)

Money isn’t everything.金钱不是一切。(跟代词)

She was the first to arrive.她是第一个到达的人。(跟数词)

Who is upstairs? 谁在楼上?(跟副词)

He is with his friends. 他和朋友在一起。(跟介词短语)

He seems to be ill. 他似乎病了。(跟不定式)

Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。(跟动名词)

This is what you need. 这就是你需要的。(跟从句)

二、学习连系动词应注意的两点

1. 关于连系动词后接副词作表语

连系动词后通常可接形容词作表语,一般不接副词:

误:His English is very well. 他的英语很好。(可将well改为good)

误:Be carefully. 小心点。(应将carefully改为careful)

误:The soup tastes nicely. 这汤味道不错。(应将nicely改为nice)

但是,有时连系动词后也可接副词作表语,不过这主要限于in, on, off, out, away, behind, up, down, over, through, around, round, below, inside, outside 等少数副词小品词以及here, there, upstairs, downstairs等少数表示地点或方位的副词:

Mother wasn’t in last night. 母亲昨晚不在家。

The meeting was over at five. 会议五点结束。

Come along. The taxi is outside. 来吧,出租车在外面。

Mother is downstairs waiting for you. 母亲在楼下等你。

2. 关于连系动词后接不定式

(1) 连系动词be后根据情况可自由地接不定式作表语:

My dream is to be a scientist. 我的梦想是当一名科学家。

All I could do was to wait. 我只能等。

My plan was to go from London to Paris. 我计划从伦敦去巴黎。

I was to have seen Mr Kay. 我本要去见凯先生的。

(2) seem, appear, prove, continue, turn out, get, grow, come 等连系动词后也可接不定式(尤其是to be)作表语:

She always seems to be sad. 她常常显得很忧伤。

My advice proved to be wrong. 我的意见证明是错的。

She appears to have many friends. 他好像有很多朋友。

The weather turned out to be fine. 天气结果很好。

Circumstances continue to be favorable. 情况仍然是有利的。

He has grown to like studying English. 他渐渐喜欢学英语了。

【注】若所接不定式为to be,通常可以省略。不过,若其后接的是表语形容词,则to be通常不宜省略。另外,连系动词look后能否接to be似乎尚有争论,不过,在现代英语中接to be的现象已较普遍。

(3) sound, smell, feel, taste, become等连系动词后通常不能接不定式:

误:These oranges taste to be good. (应去掉to be)

误:The roses smell nice. (应去掉to be)

(4) 有的连系动词后接的从句可用不定式来改写:

It seems that that she’s right. / She seems to be right. 她似乎是对的。

It appears that you have made a mistake. / You appear to have made a mistake. 似乎你弄错了。

三、三组连系动词的用法特点及区别

1. appearlook & seem

三者均可表示好像似乎,区别如下:

(1) look 指视觉印象,appear 指外表给人的印象,这两者可能是真象也可能是假象,appear的不确定性更大一些,seem 侧重指根据某种迹象作出的推断,也不一定是事实。

(2) 三者均可后接不定式,但 look 之后一般只限于 to be(且较少见)

He seems [appearslooks] to be tired. 他好像很累了。

He seems [appears] to have traveled a lot. 他似乎去过不少地方。

但是不说He looks to have traveled a lot.

(3) look, seem 之后可接介词 like,但 appear 之后一般不能:

He looks [seems] like a fool. 他看起来像个大傻瓜。

(4) appear seem不用于进行时态,但look有时可这样用(尽管较少见)

He looks [is looking] well. 他看上去气色不错。

但是不说He is seeming [appearing] well.

(5) 三者均可用于 it 开头的句子,且三者之后均可接以 as if as though 引导的从句,另外 appear seem 之后还可接 that 引导的从句:

It looks [seems, appears] as if he has lost interest in his job. 看来他对自己的工作已失去了兴趣。

It seems [appears] that he is very tired.  他似乎很累了。

为避免重复,appearseem后接的 that 从句有时可用so, not 代之:

"Is he reliable?" "It seems [appears] so (not)."“他可靠吗?”“似乎是可靠的(不可靠)

 

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