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英语写作常见错误例析(词性问题)
作者:陈根花    文章来源:本站原创    点击数:    更新时间:2011-10-21    
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英语写作常见错误例析(词性问题)

 

英语和汉语不仅在遣词造句、句型搭配、习惯用法等方面有很大的差别,就是在词性方面也有很大的差别,并且这种差别有时会使同学们在写作时稍不小心就酿成错误。如:

 

误用:Unfortunately, my car broke down and I was stuck here during it was being repaired.

改为:Unfortunately, my car broke down and I was stuck here while it was being repaired.

说明:during 是介词,后接名词或代词,不接句子。又如:He confidently authorized me to act for him while he is abroad. 他信任地委托我在他出国期间代行他的事务。

句意:不幸的是,我的车坏了,在修车的时候,我就被困在那里了。

 

误用:He used to be very anxious if he had to make a speech, even it was only a speech to his old school.

改为:He used to be very anxious if he had to make a speech, even if it was only a speech to his old school.

说明:从语义上看,even even if都可表示“即使”,但是两者的词性不同:even 是副词,even if 是连词。比如:It was cold there even in July. 那里即使在七月,天气都很冷。Even if I have to walk all the way I’ll get there. 即使我得一路走着去,我也要走到那里。

句意:如果他要演讲,他总是焦急不安,哪怕演讲是在以前呆过的学校进行。

 

误用:With the cost of keeping money in the bank increases, so it’s spent faster.

改为:As the cost of keeping money in the bank increases, so it’s spent faster.

说明:虽然 with as 均可表示“随着”,但词性不同:with 是介词,后接名词或代词,而 as 用于此义时是连词,后接句子。比较:He will improve as he grows older. 随着年龄的增长,他会进步的。People’s ideas change with the change of the times. 时代变了,人们的观念也会变化。

句意:随着在银行存钱的费用增加,人们的钱花得也更快了。

 

误用:She crawled cross the floor, her eyes stinging from the smoke.

改为:She crawled across the floor, her eyes stinging from the smoke.

说明: across cross 均可表示“横过”、“穿过”,但词性不同:across 是介词,cross 是动词。比较:cross the street 横过马路 / walk across the street 走过马路;cross a river 过河,渡河 / swim across a river 游过河

句意:她从地板上爬过去,眼睛被烟熏得直痛。

 

误用:We were driving around outside when unfortunately three old ladies emerged from the hotel and came straightly across in front of us.

改为:We were driving around outside when unfortunately three old ladies emerged from the hotel and came straight across in front of us.

说明:在现代英语中,straight 既可用作形容词,也可用作副词。straightly这个副词形式在现代英语中已被废弃,许多词典均不再收录此词。又如:We enjoy fresh vegetables and fruit, straight from the garden: fresh orange juice, fresh fish, fresh bread. 我们享用直接从果菜园采摘的新鲜的蔬菜和水果、新鲜的橘汁、新鲜的鱼、新鲜的面包。

句意:我们正在外面开车兜风时,倒霉的是有三位老年妇女突然从饭店出来,直接从我们面前穿过。

 

误用:He fell down to the ground, his mouth open and eyes close.

改为:He fell down to the ground, his mouth open and eyes closed.

说明:open close 均可用作动词,前者表示“开”,后者表示“关”,是一对反义词,如:Please open your mouth.(请张开嘴)Please close your mouth. (请闭上嘴)。但是 open close 也可用作形容词,此时前者意为“开着的”,后者意为“接近的”、“亲近的”等,而并不表示“关着的”,要表示“关着的”,英语用 closed,即用作形容词时,open close 不是一对反义词,而与 closed 才是反义词。

句意:他倒在地上,嘴张开着,眼睛闭着。

 

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